Important events took place in India during 2019. Protests against the controversial citizenship bill continued at the end of the year, beginning with a suicide attack in Pulwama district of Kashmir, India, in February. In the meantime, the Babri Masjid case has been in the headlines, apart from the Indian government’s decision to abolish the semi-autonomous status of Jammu and Kashmir. Approval was also included in the major events of 2019.
On February 14, a convoy of security forces attacked a convoy of Pulwama district of Jammu and Kashmir. In which 40 young men were killed. The ruling party, the Bharatiya Janata Party, mentioned it well in the parliamentary elections, which also benefited the electorate. Opposition parties expressed skepticism about the attack. But the government refrained from investigating the incident. However, the government and the BJP have said that they should send the suspects to Pakistan.
India blames Pakistan-based terrorist organization, Jaish Mohammad, for the attack. And on February 26, the Indian Air Force allegedly launched an airstrike on Jaish’s training center in Balakot, a Pakistani-administered Kashmir region. India claimed that it had killed a large number of terrorists. But he could not provide any proof. Once again the opposition expressed skepticism. And ask for proof of the casualties. Once again, such people have been called the country’s enemies, traitors and supporters of Pakistan. Pakistan denies casualties in the operation.
The Pakistani Air Force crossed the Line of Control (LoC) the next day and attacked the Indian troops’ hideouts. An Indian Mig-21 aircraft crashed in Pakistan-administered Kashmir during aerial combat. The surviving pilot, Abhi Nandan was later handed over to India.
Last year was India’s parliamentary election year. According to observers, issues of the Pulwama attack, boycott action, nationalism and opposition to Pakistan have benefited the BJP in the elections. The final results of the polls were announced on May 23. In which the BJP won 302 seats. After a return to the government, the BJP started implementing its manifesto. The government introduced a divorce arbitration bill in Parliament, which simultaneously declared three divorces illegal.
One of the most important events of the year 2019 was the abolition of Article 370, which entrusted special powers to Jammu and Kashmir. This time it gave Jammu and Kashmir a semi-autonomy. But Home Minister Amit Shah on August 5 submitted a bill to abolish the clause in the Rajya Sabha and then in the Lok Sabha, which was approved after discussion. It also divided Jammu and Kashmir into two parts. Two areas were administered by the Center. Strict security arrangements were made in Kashmir a few days ago. Tourists and Amar Nath pilgrims were recalled. Lockdown started in Jammu and Kashmir after the approval of the bill. People’s transportation was banned. Internet and phone services suspended. A large number of security personnel were deployed.
During these restrictions, hundreds of people were arrested or detained. The three former chief ministers include Farooq Abdullah, Omar Abdullah and Mehbooba Mufti. They are still in sight. Gatherings in Jammu and Kashmir have been banned. Even in large mosques, prayer was banned. These sanctions have adversely affected Kashmir’s economy and according to sources, thousands of billions of rupees have been damaged. But India says this is an internal issue and what he has done is within the purview of the Constitution. Several international organizations and human rights groups opposed the move and called it a human rights violation.
The final list of National Register of Citizens (NRC) has been released in the Indian state of Assam. According to this, the citizenship of 19 million people became suspicious. It was reacted all over the world and there were calls for protection of citizens’ rights from India.
In November, India’s space research agency, ISRO, sent a spacecraft called Chandrayan to the moon, but it failed. If the spacecraft named Vikram had landed on the moon, India would have been one of the countries to do the feat.
In the Babri Masjid case, which has been going on for 134 years, a five-member Constitutional Bench of the Supreme Court ruled and allowed the Hindus to replace the Babri Masjid and build a temple here. He also directed to give five acres of alternative land at the site. Most Muslim organizations rejected the decision.
The Supreme Court acknowledged most of the arguments in support of the Babri Masjid and said that in 1949 it had secretly placed idols. No evidence of Ram temple was found under Babri Masjid nor evidence of any temple. The demolition of the Babri Masjid was also declared illegal on December 6, 1992. One of the biggest arguments of the supporters of the Ram Temple was that the Babri Masjid was demolished and the Ram temple was built. Several appeals were reviewed by the Supreme Court, which was dismissed by the Supreme Court.
Assembly elections were held in Haryana and Maharashtra at the end of the year. The BJP was dominant in both the states but it was defeated in both. In Haryana, it could not get a majority. But it formed a coalition government with a local political party, the BJP. In Maharashtra, the BJP and the Shiv Sena won a majority, but there was disagreement over the position of chief minister. Shiv Sena insisted that the chief minister’s office be given to the two parties for two and a half years, which was not approved by the BJP. Eventually, these three parties formed a mixed government. In this way, the BJP was out of power. The BJP was in power in Jharkhand but suffered defeat in the December elections. And Jharkhand became the government of the Alliance of Mukti Morcha and Congress. In 2019, where parliamentary elections proved memorable for the BJP, its government shrunk in the states.
One of the most important decisions the government makes in December is the amendment of the citizenship law. It introduced a bill first in the Lok Sabha and then in the Rajya Sabha. The bill gives citizens of India a non-Muslim here because of alleged religion-based repression from Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan approved. The government placed Hindu, Sikh, Jain, Buddhist, Parsi and Christian communities in this category but Muslims were not included in it. The bill was approved after an hour-long debate in both houses. It was approved in the Rajya Sabha on December 11, and a protest against it began on December 12.
The protests began in the southeastern states of Assam and Tripura. Residents say that if millions of Hindu Bengalis were granted citizenship, the proportion of the population would deteriorate and local culture would be badly affected. On December 13, students of Jamia Millia Islamia announced a demonstration. But the police did not allow it. Police also fired sticks and tear gas shells at the students. During the violence and four buses were burnt. Police allege that the students of the university committed violence while the students strongly condemned it. Students of Aligarh Muslim University and other universities then took to the roads against the police. Come on out, police in Aligarh took action against the students, injuring several students.
Protests against the law have been going on since that day. The protest is being held in other countries as well. Protesters say the law is against the constitution. The Constitution does not allow discrimination against anyone based on religion. All are equal. But this law violates this basic principle of the Constitution.