A Research Paper By Muhammad MUNEEB
Since its creation in 1947, the Pakistan republic has experienced three longs periods of military rule. As a fallout, has not had time to take properly in the population. In Ayyub khan era Pakistan Television Corporation came into being the ministry of information head by the Ubaid Ur Rahman with NEC joint venture collaboration. In that era on November 26, 1964 the first officially television station PTV commenced transmission broadcast from Lahore. In Zia ul haq era television was brought under the islamalization campaign, heavy censorship was exercised on the media to safeguard the glory of Islam. In that era “daily musawaat” banned which was critical of material regime. In the response, the Pakistan federal union of journalist protested and launched a campaign of hunger strike. In Pervez Musharraf era the government issued the Pakistan electronic media regulatory authority ordinance in March 2002. This allow the establishment of television channels in the private sector. PEMRA operate all broadcast stations in the country.
Nevertheless in the recent years, Now Pakistani media runs on the way of developing process as well as. In March 2007 when the layers and the civil society start a campaign and protest in the support of chief justice. In this situation media plays vital role and mobilize the public for the support of demonstration. On the other hand there are a lot of examples in Pakistan in which media teach the public and aware about different agendas, Pakistani media is more actively work in the days of elections. In the election, the media particularly the private TV channels, are assuming an especially significant function in the political race as the significance of public conventions shrivels in the midst of fears of psychological oppressor assaults. Aside from this, we saw an enormous media promote advertise, to contributes dam fund which makes save our future and also save our kids just as salvation in the great beyond relying upon in the case of contributing towards the dam figured on our rundown of needs. We saw a lot of public service message from the media which are influence the public for dam fund raising. On the date of august 09, 2018 published news in the dawn newspaper about dam fund. The Pakistan electronic media regulatory authority issued a notification to all the satellite tv channels in Pakistan to dedicatee one minute broadcast the public service message to appealing for donations construction of dam.
Recently we faced covid-19, that disease which are effect through beads created when a tainted individual hacks, wheezes, or breathes out. These beads are too weighty to even think about hanging noticeable all around, and rapidly fall on floors or surfaces. You can be tainted by taking in the infection on the off chance that you are inside closeness of somebody who has COVID-19, or by contacting a sullied surface and afterward your eyes, nose or mouth. The government has given orders by staying away from public get together, hand washing, social removing, and keeping up in any event a separation of two meters or six feet. Numerous don’t obey the administration’s orders. Then the government makes media strategies to aware the publically by public service message. The media in many countries has a single point plan: COVID-19. In Pakistan, media likewise has a single point plan. How to retrieve from Covid? Media plays important role during covid-19, they deliver truth information about virus and give suitable public service message. The more then people aware about virus with the help of media.
Scope of the study:
Media plays a crucial role in shaping a healthy democracy. It is the backbone of a democracy; it makes us vigilant of numerous social, political and economic activities happening around the world. Media has very important roles to play in democracy such as; projecting the problems of the people to the public, and protecting the fundamental rights given in a Constitution. The media should be much the same as a warrior battling with a pen or like a mirror which shows us or endeavors to show us the exposed truth and astringent real factors of life. Notwithstanding, as of late the media has, as different offices, gone under the impact of government officials. Thusly, the media no more expounds on the individuals’ complaint yet on the side of the decision government party. It has been defiled by political impacts. Today, the media has numerous fundamental parts in an advanced popular government, for example political untruths, scolding reality to the general population just as assisting with helping with the pietism of the country. We experience a daily reality such that the media is a major aspect of everybody’s day by day lives, and these days clearly the media has gotten in excess of a route for us to get out the word and discuss inactively with one another. In a general public where no Swedish between the ages of 9-79 years expend under six hours Media, it feels unbelievable this ought not be misused for political increase, however what amount impact the media has on majority rule government, truly? The media is diverse medium to connect with data, news and thoughts to peruses, audience members or watchers. Media isn’t just a significant device for conveying the data, however spread information and make it conceivable
To speak with individuals on the opposite side of the earth. What the media does is that by giving this data, start the discussions and increment individuals’ mindfulness about the earth. In this manner the media assumes a major function in how social orders create after some time.
Media is supposed to be THE WATCHDOG in democracy. Media keeps the public acquainted with all the activities of the govt. It is a moderate between the legislature and the individuals which makes them mindful about one another. It is probably the most ideal approaches to spread mindfulness, about the political perspectives, among the residents of a vote based country. After all Media is supposed to be the Fourth Pillar of Democracy. It is sometimes used by some political leaders to shape the public opinion in a wrong manner. It may happen that the media would support only one political party and hence show the fake news. It also spread misconceptions among people which would result in the lack of basic foundation in a democratic nation. In last, It can be concluded that every coin has 2 sides and a great power always brings with it great responsibilities. So it totally depends on the people what they think to be more favorable.
Significance of the study:
There are most common and important significant are, today media assumes significant part in legislative issues and individual endurance in restricted territory as well as around the globe. This examination is most critical one since one can’t deny from the significant of online media in the advancing of just conduct. This examination will be uncovered the obscure significant part of online media in the advancing of equitable conduct. The present examination work will be a model for coming age. The discoveries, in such manner, will make a considerable commitment to the current information bases of information about the issues of viciousness, especially the democratic.
The media can either increase or decrease the level of democratic behavior. The media has a deep impact on the democratic behavior of the students. There are certain technical
Complications in defining and measuring the role of media in a specific way. This study responds to the questions: In Superior University Riwind road Lahore, what is the level of democratic behavior among the students? How they feel about the role of media in promoting the democratic behavior?
Objectives of the study:
- To find the role of media in individual democratic based awareness.
- To investigate the media impacts on society.
- To explore the levels of democratic behavior among the students of Superior University Lahore in Pakistan.
- To highlights the role of media in the promoting of democratic systems in Pakistan.
Survey Research is defined as the process of conducting research using surveys that researchers send to survey respondents. The data collected from surveys is then statistically analyzed to draw meaningful research conclusions.
Population & Sample
A sample refers to a smaller, manageable version of a larger group. It is a subset containing the characteristics of a larger population. Samples are used in statistical testing when population sizes are too large for the test to include all possible members or observations. The population of interest in this research project consisted of all the ‘Students’ in the Superior University Lahore, Pakistan while from this population, a sample of 100 students was selected by simple random technique.
The chapter consists of the studies interrelated with role of media in spreading awareness about democracy regarding the students of Superior University Lahore. Systematic identification and location of documents concerning information related to the research problem.
Importance of Literature Review
• It can reveal to you sources of data you never thought of. It can introduce you to eminent scholars
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For your findings
Source of data:
- Google scholar
- Pervious research article
Books are available today on any topic that you want to research. The uses of books start before even you have selected the topic. After selection of topics books provide insight on how much work has already been done on the same topic and you can prepare your literature review. Books are secondary source but most authentic one in secondary sources.
Journals and periodicals are becoming more important as far as data collection is concerned. The reason is that journals provide up-to-date information which at times books cannot and secondly, journals can give information on the very specific topic on which you are researching rather talking about more general topics.
Newspaper on the other hand is more reliable and in some cases the information. Can only be obtained from newspapers as in the case of some political studies.
Generally websites do not contain very reliable for information so their content should be checked the reliability before quoting from them. Weblogs: Weblogs are also becoming common. They are actually diaries written by different people. These diaries are as reliable to use as personal written diaries.
Literature review content:
The media is a lifeline of a nation. It provides not only information on what may affect the normal human being in his day-to-day functioning, but also provides other features that keep him informed of developments, national and international. The reach of the media and the effect that it can have on the general public has always been recognized and has never been challenged. In any democratic country the media plays a vital role in creating, molding and reflecting public opinion. India is the largest democratic country in the world and the media has established deep roots in the country. The media plays a vital role in informing the citizens
About the developments and progress made in society. The media also helps citizens to make informed choices, and to make democracy function in its true spirit. For the proper functioning of the media, it should be free from political and governmental pressure in order to ensure that it plays a significant role in democracy. The political system in India is close in spirit to the model of a liberal democracy. In the Constitution of India, the power of the legislature, executive and judiciary have been thoroughly demarcated. The party system in operation is a competitive one with flexibility of roles for both the government and opposition. There is also freedom of the press under the Constitution of India, 1950. Indian democracy has always attracted attention worldwide and has made scholars ponder over the secret of its success.
The role of the media in India, the largest democracy in the world, is different from merely disseminating information and entertainment. Educating and informing the masses for an improvement in their social status, progress and development are all priorities. In a country where there is large-scale poverty, unemployment and underdevelopment, the Research Scholar, Department of Education, University of Allahabad, Allahabad. Caroline Beck 61 media has a responsibility towards developmental journalism. It has a role to play behind the formation of public opinion which can force political parties to address the core issues haunting the country’s progress
The media has helped to make our society a democracy by placing emphasis on issues that at one point in time would have been considered strictly private, such as childbirth, homosexuality, child care, domestic violence, and sexual harassment. Transparency and accountability are a must for the proper functioning of a democratic system. The nexus between corruption and democrats intertwined by politics seems to snatch the serenity and peace of our country. The lethal politics played by these democrats-the politicians, the bureaucrats and criminals-is far removed from the role of dexterous politics being played by the media. For their vested interest, they throw the whole society into an inferno. Coverage of exploitative malpractices by corrupt officials has he…
Nowadays, the media has become so powerful that it is in a position to make or break governments. Heavy media emphasis on news about an excess of national emergencies brought about a change in the government in India. The media has a distinctive role to play in bringing about communal harmony, which in turn will preserve the secular fabric of a democratic country. It also serves to highlight those issues which violate human rights. The media has even led to the promotion of business through advertisements.
Media has a very big role to play in a democracy and its stature is in no way less than that of politicians. Hence it is rightly called the fourth Pillar of democracy i.e. Fourth Estate. It is through media that people become aware of so many aspects of life of which they are normally ignorant. Democracy is meaningless without a free, neutral and active media. Media is often referred to as the fourth branch of government because of the power they wield and the oversight function they exercise. The media’s key role in democratic governance has been recognized since the late 17th century, and remains a fundamental principle of modern-day democratic theory and practice. The role of the press as ‘watchdog’ is a traditional characterization of the role of the news media in particular. This watchdog role can take many forms depending on the nature of the medium concerned, as well as on the state of democracy and development in a particular country. Essentially, this role is to provide information – to be the ‘eyes and ears’ of the public in monitoring what is happening in public life by reporting on daily events as they unfold.
Amartya Sen sees the media as a watchdog not just against corruption but also against disaster.
“There has never been a famine in a functioning multiparty democracy. A free press and the practice of democracy contribute greatly to bringing out information that can have an enormous impact on policies for famine prevention a free press and an active political opposition constitute the best early-warning system a country threatened by famine could have.”
The role of media as ‘detective’ is a critical adjunct to the role of the press as public watchdog; however, it is dealt with separately here to emphasize the difference between reporting on public affairs, and journalistic investigations into wrongdoing in the administration of public affairs. When journalists are well trained and have trusted sources of information, the press is able to investigate wrongdoing by public officials. This includes perpetrating fraud or engaging in corruption in order to divert and personally benefit from public funds or other public resources. This ‘press as defective’ role is evidenced when the press is able to engage in fairly long-term, detailed, in-depth investigative journalism. The kind that is able to report to the public on large-scale systematic wrongdoing by public (or indeed private) officials, which may include nepotism, corruption, fraud or other kinds of criminality. These exposés often rely on more than one journalist and require the backup of the media publication or outlet (be it broadcasting or print) as a whole to provide the necessary resources for the investigative exercise. In many countries, the ability and willingness of the press to engage in investigative
Journalism is key to encouraging the police and prosecuting authorities to act against corrupt public figures, even if this only occurs as a result of the intolerable pressure that the resulting publicity puts on the police and prosecuting authorities.
There is no doubt that media has done a commendable job from time to time in making people aware about the harsh realities of life, in exposing corruption prevalent in our society, in increasing the awareness level among the people and a lot more but I feel that still a lot remains to be done. Media is becoming increasingly popular among people from all walks of life and it certainly has the potential of influencing the thoughts of its readers/viewers to a large extent. Media should, no doubt, be neutral in airing views but it should also strongly desist from airing such views which can adversely affect the communal harmony and give rise to deep suspicion, tension and senseless violence which leads to killing innocent people. The media should make the people aware of the consequences of the various actions of the governments. Linked to its general educational role, but more controversially, the press can also play the role of democracy and good governance advocate. This role is controversial because it envisages the press as both advocate and impartial reporter. In this role, the press comments on issues of the day and advocates improved democratic practices and good governance. In this advocacy role, the press sees itself firmly on the side of the ordinary citizen, whose life can be improved or worsened depending on how public authority is exercised. This advocacy role is also closely linked to the watchdog role of the press; however, it goes further. The press as advocate will report not only on what is happening but on what should be happening. The press in many developing countries is almost forced to playing this role because improving basic human living conditions cannot happen without democratic practices and good governance.
World Bank, James Wolfensohn, said in a 2002 report:
“A key ingredient of an effective development strategy is knowledge transmission andenhanced transparency. To reduce poverty, we must liberate access to information and improve the quality of information. People with more information are empowered to make better choices. For these reasons I have long argued that a free press is not a luxury. It is at the core of equitable development. The media can expose corruption. They can keep a check on public policy by throwing a spotlight on government action. They let people voice diverse opinions on governance and reform and help build public consensus to bring about change”
Free, independent and professional journalism – both online and offline – serves an essential role in democracies. It provides information that allows citizens to make informed decisions inside and outside the voting booth. It holds the powerful to account for the integrity, peace and fairness of an election. Journalism can also contribute to the electoral agenda by requiring politicians to respond to the public, and to focus on subjects of real public interest. These subjects include the SDGS – a common cause that is agreed by the global community which range from advancing peace and human rights through to ensuring gender equality, combating poverty, creating sustainable cities, and countering climate change. Journalism can be a beacon in a storm of information where unchecked lies are disseminated and emotions are whipped up to the detriment. Pfa culture of peaceful conflict resolution. In reconciliation processes, conflict sensitive journalism can play a pivotal role. It can bridge divides through accurate reporting, break down stereotypes, cover human stories and present solutions. Such journalism can help prevent polarization, violence and war. The place of free and fearless journalism, online and offline, in times when elections are threatened by discrediting rhetoric, information deception, internet disruptions and violent conflict should therefore be defended vigorously. Informed citizens, who understand the current complex global political environment, are likely to feel more empowered to exercise their democratic rights and accept outcomes of free and fair elections. This is not likely to be the case when journalism is thwarted from playing its role. World Press Freedom Day 2019 is a major opportunity to advance the agenda of deepening democracy and sustainable development in digital times.
Electoral debates are commonplace these days, and on paper they serve democracy by placing candidates and their programmers in the spotlight. Every election season, for instance, there are various debates. Yet, appearance does not always match reality, since these affairs are not as spontaneous and freewheeling as they seem. In the US Presidential elections held in 1988, both the Bush senior and Dukakis camps laid down the ground rules, specifying the number of debates, the format for questioning and the length of time for answers and rebuttals. No direct exchanges between the men were allowed instead a panel of reporters interviewed each man. Hence, the candidates controlled the planning, and they had the final say on the timing and positioning of the candidates. Many observers are convinced that candidates participating in debates deliver prepared speeches that have nothing to do with the questions they are asked. They deal in platitudes, symbols and images, and evade controversies. They frequently contradict their earlier statements and that interviewers seldom have a chance to point out these evasions or inconsistencies. The overriding objective is always to sell oneself. Whatever issues
And polices discussed in debates, the media tends to downplay them in favor of discussions of ‘winners and losers’. Instead of focusing on such trivial issues related to candidates, journalists are more apt to analyses how each side prepared, how it came across in the heat of the battle and especially how its future chances were affected. The media are encouraged in this post-mortem analysis by media spin doctors, campaign leaders tend to appear in interviews and press conferences after the debates to clarify or emphasize certain points. With all this said and done, few voters seem to be influenced by such political debates. The most common impact is to reinforce initial preferences they had about candidates. Formation of new opinions among those who were previously undecided is less likely to happen. Voters rarely get influenced by such debates and switch sides. For example, 77 per cent of the people interviewed by a Gallup poll after the first Bush- Dukakis debate in 1988 claimed that the debate did not change their voting plans. Still, the small portion of the electorate that does switch can be decisive in a close election. This possibility explains why candidates invest so much time and energy preparing for debates (Gallup report, 1988). The mass media have always been an important factor in the political sphere in democracy. During election, the mass media, especially the broadcast media, provide a link between the political party or candidate and the voters. It serves as a platform for political parties to campaign for votes. Through coverage of electoral campaigns and promotion of political advertisements, the electronic media influences voters’ behavior either in favor or against a given political party or candidate.
- Without A Free and independent media, true democracy is unattainable.
(Warren Christopher Former United States Deputy Secretary of State)
- Media play a powerful role in establishing and perpetuating social norms.
- The media does play a vital role in our democracy, and if we cannot depend on journalistic ethics, the nation’s in trouble.
- The media is absolutely essential to the functioning of a democracy. It’s not our job to cozy up to power. We’re supposed to be the check and balance on government.
(Amy Goodman American Journalist)
- I respect very much the role of the media in our society; I think they can be very, very helpful. They serve as a very useful check, sort of a watchdog over the actions of the government, and I respect that.