﴿قُل يـٰأَهلَ الكِتـٰبِ لا تَغلوا فى دينِكُم غَيرَ الحَقِّ وَلا تَتَّبِعوا أَهواءَ قَومٍ قَد ضَلّوا مِن قَبلُ وَأَضَلّوا كَثيرًا وَضَلّوا عَن سَواءِ السَّبيلِ ﴿٧٧﴾… سورةالمائدة
Say: O People of the Scripture! Do not exaggerate in your religion unjustly and do not follow the desires of those who (themselves) went astray before and misled many others and strayed from the right path.
Just as the Jews of the People of the Book were mentally overwhelmed and influenced by the slavery of Pharaoh of Egypt and the ruler of Babylon, Rawa Bakht Nasr, and learned magic in Egypt and Babylon by faith, and from the pagans of Persia in the time of Babylonian captivity. In the same way, Christians borrowed many innovations from Greeks, Romans, Tutans and other pagan nations, such as Christmas and Eid al-Adha. Christ, Easter, Baptism, and the Cross.
Filled with light and guidance like the Torah and the Gospel, and turning a blind eye to books containing divine revelation and abandoning the straightforward and truthful teachings of the Holy Prophets, Allah, glory unto Him, has endured racism and national pride. The nation was mentally enslaved by other nations. The reason for this mental and intellectual slavery was that they adopted the rituals of other nations and abandoned the enlightened instructions of the prophets and made these innovations the motto of their religion and left the straight path. One of the major innovations of Christians from other nations is ‘Christmas’, some of which are cited below:
The meaning of Christmas
Here are excerpts from the research of some Christian scholars on the meaning of Christmas:
Regarding the meaning of Christmas, Dr. Samuel Bekaski, Professor of Theology and Church History at Andrews University writes:
The word “Christmas” does not appear in the Bible. The term is a combination of the two words Christ (Christ) and Mass (Catholic Rite) which means a Catholic rite celebrated on the night of December 25 to commemorate the birth of Christ. Surprisingly, the New Testament does not even mention celebrating the birth of Christ every year. The account of Christ’s birth in the Gospels is very brief and consists of a few verses.
Professor Herbert W. Armstrong is a money maker on the concept of Christmas
“The word Christmas means the rite of Christ. This festival is practiced in the Roman Catholic Church by non-Christian polytheists and Protestants, and the question is where did they get it from? Not from the New Testament, not from the Bible. Nor did it come from authentic disciples who were trained by Christ, but the festival came from the Romans to the Catholic Church in the fourth century AD. ” 2
On December 25, Jesus’ birthday is celebrated with great pomp and ceremony in Christian nations around the world in the name of ‘Eid Milad-ul-Masih’ (Christmas). But fortunately there are still some realistic schools of thought among Christians who acknowledge that December 25 is not the day of the birth of Jesus Christ but an innovation taken from other pagan nations. Not only that, but the date of Christmas has never been the same in the history of the church, because the date of the birth of Jesus is not known by any means.
The life of Jesus and his disciples after him were in a state of cosmopolitanism. They hid from the persecution of the Romans and the Jews, and it took Christianity a century to become commonplace.
The Roman calendar was prevalent in the region before the Roman Empire converted to Christianity. This calendar begins with the founding of the Roman Empire. The sixth-century AD monk Dionysius Exiguus (470-544 AD) states that the birth of Christ took place 753 years after the beginning of the Roman calendar. The Christian Church was founded centuries later by the Roman Church. It began long after the time of Jesus and his disciples. In the 2nd century, Pope John Paul II announced the formal celebration of this innovation, but there was no fixed date for Christmas at that time. Alexandria celebrated it on May 20 in Egypt. It was celebrated on April 19, 20 and 21. Some regions also celebrated it in March.
According to the Christmas Day article in the Encyclopیاdia Britannica, in 525 AD, Dionysius Exiguus, a Scythian monk who was a priest as well as an expert calendar writer, estimated the date of Christ’s birth to be 25 December. Has been fixed.
It is true that Dionysius was a famous calendarist, he also introduced the Anno Domini, i.e. the Christian calendar, in 525 AD. He did not claim that the date of Christ’s birth is December 25
The Byzantine king Constantine the Great (272-373AD) set this date as the day of Jesus’ birth worldwide.
Since the 4th century AD, Christmas has been celebrated around the world on December 25. But the Christian Orthodox Church, which relies on the Gregorian calendar, celebrates Christmas on January 7, and even today in regions where the Orthodox Church The majority, Christmas is celebrated there on January 7, including Russia, Armenia, East Timor, the Philippines, Syria and the Indian state of Kerala. There are some regions where Christians celebrate Christmas on January 6 and January 18. Are
The Gospel and the determination of the birth of Christ
Come on! Now let us determine the birth of Christ by reviewing the verses on the birth of Christ from the Gospels. The authors of the Encyclopedia Britannica conclude from the statements of the Gospels that
“The birth of Jesus is uncertain. Mark and John do not write about them in their Gospels. Our only sources of information are the extremely contradictory statements about the birth and infancy of Jesus Christ, on the one hand before the Gospel of Matthew. The two-chapter is a mythical story in which the birth and childhood of Jesus is attributed to the reign of Herod the Great (74-4 BC) and the change of his government, ie, four BC. According to the chapter, the birth of Jesus is attributed to the 6th century AD census in Judea during the reign of Emperor Augustus.
Significantly, King Herod, in whose Gospel the birth of Jesus is described, actually died four or ten years before Jesus was born. Readers can examine this factual statement of the Encyclopڈdia Britannica themselves from the writings of the Gospels of Matthew and Luke. The second chapter of the Gospel of Luke describes the atmosphere of Jesus’ birthday as follows:
“Then the time came for her to give birth. And her side was born and she wrapped him in a cloth and put him in the manger, because there was no place for them in the inn. There were shepherds in the area who were in the field at night. He lived and cared for his throat. ”
The famous Bible commentator Adam Clarke explains this verse in his commentary on the city of Afaq as follows:
“The fact that Christ was born in September or October is also indirectly supported by the fact that from November to February the shepherds do not guard their flocks in the fields at night, but at night during these months they keep them in protective enclosures. They are taken to what is called Sheepfold. Therefore, December 25 is a very inappropriate date for the birth of Jesus Christ. ”4
Professor H. W. Armstrong writes in his research paper on the above verse of the Gospel of Luke:
“Jesus was not born in the winter, because when Jesus was born there were shepherds in the area who lived in the fields at night and took care of their flocks. This cannot happen in the area of Judea in the month of December. Shepherds always took their flocks to mountainous areas and fields and locked them in their protective enclosures before October 15 to protect them from the cold and rainy weather that began after October 25. Remember that the Bible itself proves that it was a cold rainy season that did not allow shepherds to spend the night in the open fields. ”5
Adam Clarke (Adam Clarke1760–1832) writes that
“It was the ancient custom of the Jews to send their sheep and goats out to the fields and fields in the month of Eid-ul-Fitr (April) and bring them back home at the beginning of the rainy season.”
Professor AT Robertson states regarding the determination of the birth of Christ:
“If the preaching of Christ began when you were thirty years old and ended in your death on the occasion of the Passover at the age of three and a half, then carefully return to the past, instead of December 25, we Or arrive in the months of October. ”7
The Gospel of Luke also attributes the birth of the Messiah to a census during the reign of Caesar Augustus. The second chapter of the Gospel of Luke begins as follows:
“In those days it happened that the order was issued by Caesar Augustus to write the names of the people of the whole kingdom. This first writing of names took place during the reign of Cornis, the ruler of Syria, and all the people went to their respective cities to register. ‘8
The famous Christian historian Barney Cassdon and Dr. Samuel, a professor at Andrews University, make the following remarks in their respective research books on the Roman census:
“Bethlehem is only four miles from Jerusalem. The Romans were famous for conducting a census during a custom in their occupied territories, a festival. So in the case of the Israelites, they took the time to report to the people of their provinces. Be easy and suitable for It is unreasonable and illogical to call the people in the middle of winter for the census (which was done to levy and collect taxes), but in the declining conditions, the proper and logical time to levy the tax is after the harvest. The time will come when people will have their taxes in their hands after harvesting. ”
The sixth and seventh verses of Luke chapter 2 of the Gospel state:
And his firstborn son was born, and he wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger. Because there was no place for them in the inn. ”
According to the previous statement, two important points come to light regarding the birthday of Jesus:
First: Mary (peace be upon her) gave birth to a child and put it in the manger … In this regard, I consider your common sense to be the judgment of justice that if it was the month of December (from the above statements, this will be proved December was a month of continuous rain and severe cold in the Palestinian province of Judea.) So how could Mary go out? And how could she put the baby Jesus in the manger instead of giving her a hug?
Second: There was no place for them in the inn … According to Dr. Samuel’s research
This verse relates not only to the Roman census, but also to the Jewish festival of Feast of Tabernacle, which is the last and most important pilgrimage of the year for the Jews. Booths are also known as the festival of temporary canopies and ‘Eid-ul-Khayyam’. On the occasion of this festival, people used to come to visit the holy places. For this reason, “there was no place for them in the inn.”
The Matthew Gospel is one of the second most obsolete Gospels, originally written in Hebrew. St. Jerome later translated it into Latin. This Gospel describes in great detail the events from the birth of Mary to the boyhood of Jesus. It also gives a very clear argument about the season of Jesus’ birth that it was not a winter season but a summer season. According to the Gospel, “A few days after the birth of Christ, Mary left Bethlehem with her husband Joseph the Carpenter to go to Egypt so that King Herod would not kill the little Jesus. As they passed through a desert, the heat of the desert and the scorching sun made them weak. They and their animals were also thirsty. He rested for a while in the shade of a palm tree, and the tree was full of fruit. ”12
From all of the above arguments, it is as clear as day that Christ was born in the summer, rather than the winter, according to the Gospel.
The Holy Qur’an and the determination of the birth of Jesus
The Holy Qur’an mentions the birth of Jesus in detail in the second Ruku ‘of Surah Maryam.
So she became pregnant with him and carried him away to a distant place. Then the pains of childbirth brought her to the trunk of a date-palm. They said: “I wish I had died before this and forgotten.” Would have gone
After this, the following decree is issued to Maryam (as) from Bargah Ezdi:
At that time an angel called to them from below them, saying, “Do not be sad. Your Lord has made a spring to flow beneath you.” And grasp the trunk of the date-palm and shake it towards you. Fresh dates will fall on you. So eat and drink and cool your eyes. ”
Regarding the birthplace of Jesus, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:
«Salutations to Bethlehem as the Son of Jesus» 13
“I prayed in Bethlehem, where Jesus was born. ”
In the above verses, Mahal Shahid verse number 25 mentions the shaking of the palm trunk and the falling of fresh palms. By reading the above verses carefully, it is known that when Hazrat Maryam (PBUH) was afflicted with pain, Allah Almighty He instructed them to shake the trunk of the date palm so that fresh ripe dates would fall on them and they would eat it and gain strength by drinking spring water.
It is noteworthy that in Palestine, dates ripen only in mid-summer, July and August. This also makes it clear that Jesus was born on a day in July or August. However, the date of December 25 is completely wrong.
Regardless of whether this matter of palms was a miracle of the Blessed Virgin Mary or not, the apparent context of these verses suggests that the tree was fruitful. Allama Muhammad Amin Shanqiti has written in his city Afaq Tafsir that
Some of the scholars said: The seed is fruitful, and God has commanded it to fall from the moisture which is present.
Some of the scholars said: That palm tree was fruitful, so Allah Almighty ordered Maryam (peace be upon her) to shake it so that this tree would drop its fresh dates for Maryam (as) which were present. ”
In this regard, what a well-meaning person said
I do not know that God has revealed it to me, and He has sent it to me, so that it may not be wet, but it may be that I am not parted from it, but all things are due to it.
Did you not pay attention to the point that Allah revealed to Maryam (peace be upon her) that if you shake the trunk towards him, he would drop the palms. If Allah had willed, the trunk would have leaned towards him without shaking, but every There is an apparent cause for something. ”
Why Christmas on December 25?
From the previous arguments of Islam and Christianity, it has been proved that the birthday of Jesus is not even in the winter season in December, so a very important question will arise in the margins of every reader that if the Holy Qur’an And if these arguments of the Holy Bible are based on reality, then why was December 25 designated as the Eid Milad-e-Masih?
Dr. Hans J. Hiller, Professor of History and Theology at Duke University in Durham, Northern California, responds to Brand’s Christmas Day by answering this question as follows:
“Early Christians used to differentiate between celebrating Jesus’ birthday and celebrating it as a festival. In fact, the rite of celebrating the birth of Christ came much later, especially during the first two centuries of Christianity. There was strong opposition from early Christians to the identification of birthdays as festivals. Many church fathers made sarcastic remarks about the pagan (polytheistic) ritual of celebrating birthdays.
The formal beginning of setting December 25 as the birth of Christ is unclear. There is no trace of this in the New Testament. A universal explanation for the basis of this day is that December 25 is actually the pagan (polytheistic) Roman festival of “Dies Solis Invicti Nati” (ie, the invincible sun god). Was a Christian form of birth in the Roman Empire, which was celebrated during the solar revolution as a symbol of the life of the sun god.
Similarly, Rabbi Macy H. Shepherd, Professor Emeritus of the Church Divinity School of the Pacific, a well-known institution in Berkeley, California, confirms the previous statement in his article entitled “Church Year” in the Encyclopedia Britannica:
“Many people have accepted the idea that Milad-e-Masih is in fact the birthday of the ‘Sun God of Truth’, who is the rival of Christianity in Rome and North Africa and the ‘Undefeated Sun’. As a pagan festival of the deity, it is celebrated on the occasion of the winter solar revolution (when the sun is farthest from its place of travel or far from the equator, ie December 21 and some days thereafter). . ” 16
Even in the Catholic Encyclopedia, under the heading “Christmas”, this confession of truth exists as follows:
Eid al-Adha was not one of the earliest sacred festivals of the ancient Christian Church, but the earliest evidence of this festival is found in the pharaohs of Egypt. Before the influence of Christianity in Europe, especially in Rome and its environs, pagan customs were celebrated around the 1st of January, which later took the form of Eid al-Adha.
The article entitled “Natal Day” in the Catholic Encyclopedia itself testifies to the fact that the great personality of the Church, the early Catholic Pope Origen (Origen 185-253 AD) also acknowledged this fact:
“There is not a single reference in the Holy Scriptures to holding a great feast on the occasion of a birthday or celebrating it as a festival. These are the sinful infidels like Nimrod, Pharaoh and others like them who hold a feast or a great feast on the day of their birth in this world. ”18
An article on “Christmas” in the Encyclopedia Americana summarizes this:
“According to many religious scholars, Christmas was not celebrated in the early centuries of the Christian Church … People began celebrating in the fourth century AD to commemorate the birth of Jesus. In the fifth century AD, the Western Church ordered the festival to be celebrated on the day the ancient Romans celebrated the birthday of their sun god (December 25). No one knew the exact date of Christ’s birth. ”
The reality of Christmas
Professor Alexander Hazelp describes the relationship between Christmas and Nimrod as follows:
“We find a common story in the ancient civilizations of Babylon, Egypt, Canaan, Greece, Rome and various Asian countries, which began with the Babylonian civilization and then different civilizations adopted this story and incorporated it into their beliefs. According to the city of Babylon, King Nimrod went hunting in the forest and did not return. Probably he was a victim. His mother, who was also his wife, searched for him but did not find him. Eventually, to entertain himself, he asked my son to rest in Hades. And just as a new life sprouts from a dry stem on the winter solar revolution (ie, December 21 and a few days later), so does a new life sprout from the dead body of my son. Every year a new life will be born. And every year we will celebrate this day as Eid. ”20
Martin Collins remarks:
After Nimrod’s untimely death (2167 BC), his mother Semiramis propagated among the Babylonians the belief that Nimrod was a god. She also said that her son was like the trunk of a tree, like winter. In the end, a new life is born from him, just as a new life is born from his dead body on his birthday. On his birthday, his mother announced that Nimrod came to every green tree. This is probably the beginning of the Christmas tree. Thus, his birthday began to be celebrated as an Eid in the last days of the winter solar revolution. ”21
The Bible commands not to celebrate such festivals
The Bible also forbids idolaters from attending festivals, feasts, and festivals. The Almighty says: “O house of Israel! Hear what the Lord says to you. Thus saith the LORD; Ye shall not go after other nations
Also, this festival was not in the true religion of Jesus, but later the Roman clergy made it the motto of the religion, so it is heresy in Christianity. And innovation is also forbidden in the Bible in dozens of places.
“Those who innovate will not inherit the kingdom of God.”
He also said: “There will be false teachers among you who will secretly bring out the destructive innovations … and will soon put themselves to death.”
The Almighty has said:
﴿وَلَئِنِ اتَّبَعتَ هَهواءَهُم بَعَدَ ما جاائكَ مِنَ العِلمِ … ﴿٣٧﴾ … سورةالرعد
“If you follow the desires of these people after the knowledge has come to you, then there will be no helper for you before Allah and no savior.”
In the Holy Qur’an, the Lord of Glory forbade the acceptance of the beliefs, ideologies, festivals and customs of ignorant and misguided nations in 15 different places.
In the collection of hadiths, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said twenty times about different matters of life:
“Oppose the polytheists.”
«Khalifa al-Majus» 26 “Oppose the Magi.”
“Oppose the Jews and the Christians.” 27 “Oppose the Jews and the Christians.”
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) also said:
«I liken it to a nation like them» 28
“Anyone who imitates a nation is one of them.”
Hazrat Omar Farooq said:
“Don’t enter into their conventions on the day of Eid, then the worst will descend on them” 29
“Do not go to their churches on the day of their Eid, for the wrath of Allah descends on them.”
In this context, you said:
“Avoid the enemies of God in their Eid.”
“Beware of participating in the Eid of the enemies of Allah!”
Hazrat Abdullah bin Amr said:
If a Muslim living in the land of non-Muslims celebrates his Nowruz (New Year) and his Eid like them and dies if he behaves in the same manner, then on the Day of Resurrection he will be raised with these non-Muslims. ’31
Islamic jurists and Christmas
- Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal was asked if a person whose wife is a Christian can allow his wife to go to the Christian Eid or church? So he said: He should not allow it because Allah has commanded not to cooperate in sinful deeds.
- Various Shafi’i jurists say that whoever joins the Eid of the infidels should be punished
- The well-known Shafi’i jurist Abu al-Qasim Haballah ibn Hasan ibn Mansur al-Tabari says:
“It is not permissible for Muslims to attend the Eids of the Jews and Christians because they are based on evil and lies. And when the believers participate in such a festival of the disbelievers, they are like those who love the festival of disbelief and those who are affected by it. And we fear lest the punishment of Allah should descend upon them. Because when the torment of Allah comes, the good and the bad are all wrapped up in it. ”34
- The famous disciple of Imam Malik, Rashid, the famous Maliki jurist Abdul Rahman bin Al-Qasim was asked whether it is permissible to board the boats in which the Christians board on the day of their Eids. The punishment of Allah did not fall on them because on such occasions they commit shirk together.
- The famous Hanafi jurist Abu Hafs Kabir said: If a person worships Allah for fifty years and then the Eid of the polytheists comes, he should give only one egg as a gift to a polytheist while respecting that day, then he has disbelieved and His deeds were lost
- The famous jurist Imam Abu Al-Hasan Amadi has also issued a fatwa that it is not permissible for Jews and Christians to participate in Eids.
- Imam Ibn Qayyim said: “It is haraam to greet the disbelievers on the occasion of a special religious slogan.”
- Imam Ibn Taymiyyah said in this issue: “People do a lot of work on December 24 in winter. According to Christians, this day is the day of the birth of Jesus. All the work that is done in it, such as lighting a fire. Doing, preparing special food and lighting candles etc. are all abominable deeds. Considering this day as Eid is the religion and belief of Christians. It has no origin in Islam and it is not permissible for Christians to participate in this Eid. 39
But it is unfortunate that most of the people and some of the guiding scholars who guide them not only attend such festivals of non-Muslims but also praise them. They should fear Allah and not please these enemies of Allah because “they want you to be lenient so that they too may be lenient.” 40. And Allah also says: “Neither from you. The Jews will never be happy and neither will the Christians until they follow their religion. ”41 And the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said:“ You will follow the ways of the first nations, even if If people enter a goat’s bill, you will also enter it. There is no evidence for it from the Companions and the Ahl al-Bayt al-Azaam, but these innovations are the charisma of the blind imitation of the Jews and Christians. Run on Amen!
The summary of all the previous details is as follows
- Jesus’ birthday is completely unknown.
- Only estimates are made regarding the date of birth, there is no authoritative argument.
- Jesus was not born on December 25.
- In the light of the known events of Jesus’ birth in the Qur’an and the Gospels, it is clear that he was born in the summer.
- Nevertheless, Jesus’ birthday was set for December 25, because the Romans, the early polytheists who protected early Christianity, used to celebrate the birthday of their sun god on December 25.
- The Pharaohs of Egypt also celebrated the birthday of Horus, the son of their famous goddess Isis, on December 25.
- The tradition of celebrating December 25 as Eid is first found in the history of the Babylonian civilization. Because the people of Babylon used to celebrate the birthday of King Nimrod, the founder of the city, on December 25.
- Celebrating the birthday of a person as a festival or celebrating one’s own birthday is the way of Nimrod, Pharaoh and polytheistic nations.
- According to the Bible, it is not permissible to celebrate such festivals.
- The Holy Prophet forbade the resemblance of Jews and Christians.
- It is haraam to greet on such a festival.
- It is not permissible to give any gift to a non-Muslim on a special religious festival.
- In the imitation of Christians, celebrating the birth of the Prophet (peace be upon him) is both an innovation and a resemblance to non-Muslims.
- The Date & Meaning of Christmas by Dr. Samuele Bacchiocchi, p.08
- The Plain Truth about Christmas by Pr. Hwrbert W Armstrong, p.02
- Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: Dionysius Exiguus
- Commentary on the Gospel of Luke by Adam Clark, 5/370, New York Ed.
- The Plain Truth about Christmas by Pr. H W Armstrong, p. 03, USA 1952 Ed.
- Commentary on the Gospel of Luke by Adam Clark, 5/370, New York Ed.
- A Harmony of the Gospels by Pr. A. T. Robertson p.267, New York ed. 1992
- The Gospel of Luke: 2: 1, 3
- God’s Appointed Times by Barney Kasdan, Baltimore MD, 1992 p.97; The Date & Meaning of Christmas by Dr. Samuele Bacchiocchi, p.08
- Luke 2: 7
- The Date & Meaning of Christmas by Dr. Samuele Bacchiocchi, p.08
- The Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew ch. # 20, Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 8, 1886 ed.
- Sunan An-Nisa’i: 451, Sindh Hassan
- Additions to the Explanation of the Qur’an in the Qur’an by Shanqiti: 4 ؍ 190
- Encyclopedia Britannica, Chicago 2009 Deluxe Edition, Christmas
- Encyclopedia Britannica, Chicago 2009 Deluxe Edition, Church Year
- Catholic Encyclopedia, Roman Catholic Church, 1911 Ed .: Christmas
- Catholic Encyclopedia, Roman Caotholic Church, 1911 Ed. Natal Day
- Encyclopedia Ameracana, New York, 1944 Ed. (Christmas)
- The Tow Babylons by Alexander Hislop, p.93
- Forerunner Commentary by Martin G. Collins
- Jeremiah 10 ؍ 1,2
- Galatians 5:21
- 2 Peter 1: 1
- Sahih Bukhari: 5892; Sahih Muslim: 259
- Sahih Muslim: 260
- Sunan Abi Dawood: 652; Sahih Ibn Habban: 2183
- Sunan Abi Dawood: 4031
- مصنف عبد الرزاق: 1609 ؛ سنن کبری للبیہقی: 18861 Imam Ibn Katheer said: The documents are correct
- Al-Sunan al-Kubra for Bayhaqi: 18862
- Sunan al-Kubra for Bayhaqi: Hadith 18863 A straightforward requirement from Allama Ibn Taymiyyah: 1 ؍ 200
- المغنی لابن قدامہ: 9 ؍ 364 ؛ الشرح الکبیر على متن المقنع: 10 ؍ 625
- Al-Aqna ‘: 2 ؛ 526; Mughni Al-Muhtaj: 5 ؍ 526
- Ahkam Ahl al-Dhimma: 3 ؍ 1249
- Al-Mudakhl Ibn Al-Hajj: 2 ؍ 47
- الحرالرقائق شرح کنز الدقائق: 8 ؍ 555 ؛ الدر المختار: 6 ؍ 754
- Rulings of Ahl al-Dhimma by Imam Ibn Qayyim: 3 ؍ 1249
- Ahkam Ahl al-Dhimma: 1 ؍ 205
- Require a straight line: 1 ؍ 478
- سورۃ القلم: 9
- Surah Al-Baqarah: 120
- Sahih Bukhari: 3456